Archives for January 2011

Management fees

The following is from

Managing your management fees

By Robert Leombruno

Management fees are a powerful tax planning tool. However, case law has provided ammunition to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) in their review of  inter-corporate management fees. As such, proper execution is crucial when undertaking any tax planning using management fees.

Corporate groups commonly use management fees to shift income and expenses between companies. While such fees can help with risk management by keeping excess cash out of an operating company, corporate groups can also defer taxes by creating a company that earns management fees and accesses the small business deduction. However, if the rules surrounding management fees are not properly considered double taxation can occur; i.e., the company paying the management fee would not be allowed a tax deduction while the company providing the management service would still be required to include the management fee into income.

The CRA will generally allow management fees to be deductible to the extent that they are incurred for the purpose of gaining or producing income and provided they are “reasonable in the circumstances”. Even an expense that is specifically deductible under the Income Tax Act may be partially or fully disallowed if it is considered unreasonable.

While the CRA has a long-standing practice of not challenging the reasonableness of salaries or bonuses paid to a principal shareholder who is active in the corporation’s business, their position is that this practice would not extend to intercorporate management fees. To be fully deductible, any fees and/or bonuses paid to corporate shareholder-managers by an operating company (Opco) must be reasonable given the services actually rendered by the holding company (Holdco) through its employees. The resulting profits of Holdco may be distributed to the shareholder-employees of Holdco where the general practice of the corporation is to distribute profits of the company to shareholder-employees in the form of bonuses or additional salary. If the management fee from Opco to Holdco is not reasonable in the light of the services rendered, the unreasonable portion would not be deductible by Opco.

There have been significant court rulings surrounding the deductibility of management fees. The case law is clear that the deductibility of management fees should not be taken for granted. At a minimum, for the management fees to be deductible, bona fide management services are necessary for the payer in its income-earning activities. These services must actually be provided by the payee to the payer, should actually be paid, must be reasonable in amount, and should be documented pursuant to a written contract, the terms of which are adhered to.

Factors affecting the reasonableness of management fees include:

  1. The nature of the management services
  2. Whether the management services were performed on or off site
  3. A comparison to similar operations in similar markets in terms of efficiency, profits, etc.
  4. Effort applied and the responsibilities of the provider of the services
  5. Special expertise or know how held by the service provider
  6. The portion of the profit that reflects the expertise and quality of the management services performed
  7. Existence of a management-services contract

Documentation is key. We recommend that a formal management agreement be signed by the two parties and that this agreement include the nature of the services provided and the number of hours to be spent providing the services. Furthermore, this agreement should be supported by a corporate resolution authorizing the management services or payment for the services.

While management fees are a powerful tool to implement corporate strategy and tax planning, the mismanagement of intercorporate management fees could be costly and problematic.

Robert Leombruno is a tax senior manager in Burlington.

Foreign Income tax reporting

On your personal or corporate tax return you will be asked if you owned foreign property at any time in the year with a cost amount over $100,000?  If you do, you are required to file  form T1135  – Foreign Income Verification Statement with the Canada Revenue Agency.  The form provides detailed instructions on what types of property are included in the calculation.

The reason this form is in the news of late is because CRA  is showing  no tolerance for late filing this form.  It is due annually on or before the due date of your income tax return.  The penalties for late filing are substanstial — $25.00 per day to a maximum of 100 days — $2,500.

I have known of cases where the individual has not bothered to file their tax return by April 30th because they knew they were going to receive a refund due to a contribution to their RRSP.  When they got around to filing they found they were assessed $2,500 plus interest for late filing the T1135.

For further information see Jamie Golombek’s article:

The T1135 form and instructions are available from CRA at:

Employee or independent contractor?

 Prue v. M.N.R., 2011 TCC 9, (January 10, 2011),

This appeal brought before the Tax Court of Canada focussed on whether an individual was an employee or an independent contractor.  I haven’t read it line by line to come up with a detailed analysis but here is what I gleaned from the document.

1.  Document the  nature of the relationship – put it in writing, sign it.  Do the parties involved  want this to be an employee/employer relationship or that of an independent contractor.

2.  Individuals may find the idea of being an independent contractor appealing in that as a business venture they can claim expenses otherwise denied to employees.  However,  if, at some point in the future, the services of the contractor are no longer needed they might suddenly have a chance of heart.  Now they want to be an employee so they can claim Employment Insurance benefits.  To that end they can apply to the Rulings Officer at a Tax Services Office operated by Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) on the insurability of their employment.    This opens a whole can of worms for the employer with CRA – out of which very little of any good can result!

On the value of the US$…

Jim Rogers was recently quoted as follows:

“Paper money is made of cotton, and I’m long cotton, by the way.  One reason I’m long cotton is because Dr. Bernanke is out there running the printing presses as fast as he can.”

David Rosenberg  in Breakfast with Dave  – January 17th 2011